Brave new I/O

January 18, 2018 by Jorge Aparicio

Hey there! It’s been a while. I’ve been working on some cool stuff for you. Now that’s in more or less good shape I can blog about it!

This blog post introduces our new approach to I/O in embedded contexts.

Overview: The register model

First some background information

In microcontrollers all external I/O requires interacting with peripherals. Peripherals are additional pieces of electronics that sit in the same chip / package as the core processor.

Communication between the processor and peripherals occurs through a shared memory region. This memory region is logically split in registers. Each register is usually machine word sized (e.g. 32 bits on ARMv7-M), to guarantee atomic (single instruction) memory accesses to it. All registers associated to a single peripheral are usually located in a contiguous memory location; this group of registers is referred to as register block.

Thus all I/O boils down to memory operations on these registers.

The old approach

The old approach follows the C model of having peripherals’ register blocks as global (read: globally visible and accessible) resources.

In C, this model has the issue that two execution contexts (e.g. threads / interrupts) may perform non atomic operations (e.g. a read-modify-write operation) on the same register leading to a race condition (*). See below:

(*) not a UB triggering data race. AFAIS UB (torn reads / write and misoptimization) can’t really occur because operations on registers are marked as volatile and they are atomic (single instruction); microcontrollers are (usually) single core; and the memory model of the register memory region is non-weak.

// defined elsewhere
static volatile int* GPIOA_ODR = 0x48000014;

void main() {
  while (1) {
    *GPIOA_ODR += 1;

// can preempt `main`
void interrupt_handler() {
  *GPIOA_ODR *= 2;

Here main and interrupt_handler race each other and this can cause the effects of interrupt_handler to sometimes be lost.

In Rust, we improved this situation by making the register blocks not directly accessible. Instead you had to use a critical section (or, in Real Time For the Masses (RTFM), prove the compiler that no preemption was possible) to access the register block. We also made register manipulation fully type safe by generating an API from vendor provided System View Description (SVD) files using a tool called svd2rust.

Here’s the previous C example ported to the old Rust model.

// generated by svd2rust
const GPIOA: Peripheral<GPIOA> = unsafe { Peripheral::new(0x4800_0000) };
// also generated by svd2rust
struct GPIOA {
    moder: MODER, otyper: OTYPER, ospeedr: OSPEEDR, pupdr: PUPDR, idr: IDR,
    odr: ODR, /* .. */

fn main() {
    loop {
        // critical section: `interrupt_handler` can't preempt this closure
        interrupt::free(|cs| {
            GPIOA.borrow(cs).odr.modify(|r, w| w.bits(r.bits() + 1));

// can preempt `main`
fn interrupt_handler() {
    interrupt::free(|cs| {
        GPIOA.borrow(cs).odr.modify(|r, w| w.bits(r.bits() * 2));

The Rust version doesn’t have the race condition that the C version had. That coupled with the type safe API, which prevents you from misusing the registers (i.e. writing to the reserved portions of it), was a great improvement but was not enough for creating solid higher level abstractions.

The hole in the old model

The Achilles heel of this model, and the C model, is the global access property of peripherals. That simply breaks all abstractions. Here’s an example:

Correct clock configuration (there are several clocks running at different frequencies in a microcontroller) is important for the correct operation of peripherals, like the USART, that deal with asynchronous communication protocols, like serial communication. In asynchronous communication protocols both sides of the communication channel have to agree on some baud rate (bit rate) before the communication takes place. The communication only works if both sides operate at the agreed upon baud rate.

Say you create a Serial abstraction that reads the RCC peripheral, which controls the clock configuration, during initialization to configure the USART1 peripheral to operate at the right baud rate:

struct Serial<'a> {
    usart: &'a mut USART1,

impl<'a> Serial<'a> {
    pub fn new(usart1: &'a mut USART1) -> Self { /* .. */ }
    pub fn init(&mut self, rcc: &RCC, baud_rate: u32) { /* .. */ }
    pub fn write(&mut self, byte: u8) -> Result<(), Error> { /* .. */ }

You use the abstraction in some RTFM application where a task has exclusive access to the USART1 peripheral and you are able to use the Serial abstraction without locks.

// rtfm: v0.2.0

app! { .. }

fn init(p: init::Peripherals, r: init::Resources) {
    Serial(p.USART1).init(p.RCC, 115_200);
    // ..

fn task(t: &mut Threshold, r: EXTI0::Resources) {
    let mut serial = Serial(r.USART1);
    // do stuff with `serial`

All seems good. Except that there’s no guarantee that RCC will not be modified by some other task thus there’s no guarantee that the clock configuration will remain the same for all the executions of task. The other task doesn’t even have to name the RCC as one of its resources because the RCC has global visibility so any task can always access it (this is actually an old RTFM bug that’s only occurs with the old I/O model):

fn foo() {
    interrupt::free(|cs| {
        let rcc: &RCC = RCC.borrow(cs);
        // modify `RCC` to tweak the clock configuration to, say, halve all the
        // clock frequencies

fn some_other_task(t: &mut Threshold, r: EXTI1::Resources) {

If this happens then the serial communication will fail: the hardware will raise some “framing” error flag to signal the baud rate mismatch.

(Some of you may be thinking “but then you should store a reference to RCC in Serial to make sure the clock configuration can’t change”. Unfortunately that’s not enough because Serial has to be re-constructed every time the task starts so RCC can still be modified by other task between the end of task and the next time it’s invoked)

Once you know about this hole then you conclude that no abstraction around the svd2rust API can hold their invariants because peripherals are always open to modification, even by crates created by a third party. Yikes!

The new approach

The new I/O model (svd2rust v0.12.x) removes the root of the problem: it no longer provides global access to peripherals. Instead peripherals need to be taken (read: moved) into the current execution context. See below:

// stm32f30x was generated using `svd2rust`
extern crate stm32f30x;

use stm32f30x::{GPIOA, Peripherals};

fn main() {
    let p = stm32f30x::Peripherals::take().unwrap();

    // difference: this is now an *owned* value, not a reference
    let gpioa: GPIOA = p.GPIOA;

    // same register manipulation API as before
    gpioa.odr.modify(|r, w| w.bits(r.bits() * 2));

The peripherals can only be taken once. Peripherals::take returns an Option that will only be Some the first time the method is called; subsequent calls to Peripheral::take will return the None variant.

fn main() {
    let ok = Peripherals::take().unwrap();
    let panics = Peripherals::take().unwrap();

This effectively makes each peripheral a singleton because there can only ever be at most one instance of them at any point in time. In the old model peripherals were also singletons but they were global singletons: singletons accessible by anyone. In the new model peripherals are scoped singletons that are owned by the execution context (task / thread) from where Peripherals::take was called. A peripheral is not, forever, tied to a single execution context, though; it can be moved into another execution context if desired because every peripheral is Sendable.

How does this new ownership based model affect the way we create higher level abstractions? Let’s see.

Freezing the clock configuration

Before I showed that changing the clock configuration can be problematic as it can affect the operation of peripherals like the USART. Now that we have ownership over peripherals, making sure that the clock configuration never changes is very easy: you simply drop the RCC peripheral. Once RCC is gone the RCC registers can no longer be modified thus the clock configuration will remain unchanged from that point and on.

RCC stands for Reset and Clock Control and controls not only the clock configuration but it’s responsible for enabling, resetting and disabling other peripherals. Dropping the whole thing would mean that we can no longer enable other peripherals and most peripherals start disabled at boot time to save power so maybe it’s not the best of ideas.

What we can do instead is split RCC into parts in charge of different functionalities:

struct Parts { ahb: AHB, apb1: APB1, apb2: APB2, cfgr: CFGR }

trait RccExt {
    /// Constrains RCC functionality by splitting it in parts
    fn constrain(self) -> Parts;

impl RccExt for RCC { .. }

CFGR controls the clock configuration and the other parts are in charge of enabling and disabling peripherals. Note that constrain consumes the original RCC which granted full access to every RCC register; this effectively constrains the operations that can be performed on RCC registers to only the ones exposed by the members of Parts.

With a bit more of work we can achieve something like this:

fn main() {
    let p = Peripherals::take().unwrap();
    let rcc = p.RCC.split();

    let clocks: Clocks = rcc.cfgr.sysclk(64.mhz()).pclk1(32.mhz()).freeze();

    assert_eq!(clocks.sysclk(), 64.mhz());
    assert_eq!(clocks.hclk(), 64.mhz());
    assert_eq!(clocks.pclk1(), 32.mhz());
    assert_eq!(clocks.pclk2(), 32.mhz());

    // can still use `rcc.{ahb,apb1,apb2}` over here

CFGR exposes a builder-like API to pick the frequency of each clock. The final freeze method makes the configuration effective, consumes CFGR and returns a Clocks value. Clocks is a Copy-able struct that contains the frozen clock configuration. Clocks can be used in the initialization of abstractions like Serial; its very existence holds the invariant that the clock configuration will not change.

Typed configuration

Physical pins on a microcontroller can be configured as digital inputs, as digital outputs or as peripheral pins (pins associated to peripherals like the USART). We can encode this configuration in the type of a pin to enforce at compile time that a pin has a certain configuration. We can think of the different configurations as the different states the pin can be in. This pattern of encoding states in the type system is known as type state (some people also call it session types).

Let’s see how this would apply in practice:

fn main() {
    let p = Peripherals::take().unwrap();

    let mut rcc = p.RCC.constrain();

    // splits the GPIOA peripheral into 16 independent pins + registers
    let mut gpioa = p.GPIOA.split(&mut rcc.ahb);
    // all pins start as floating inputs
    let pa9: PA9<Input<Floating>> = gpioa.pa9;

    // API available in the `Input<_>` state
    if pa9.is_low() {
        // ..
    } else if pa9.is_high() {
        // ..

    // configure the pin PA9 as an output
    // this operation consumes the original `pa9` value
    let mut pa9: PA9<Output<PushPull>> =
        pa9.into_push_pull_output(&mut gpioa.moder, &mut gpioa.otyper);

    // API available in the `Output<_>` state

The gpioa.moder and gpioa.otyper values are proxies for the MODER and OTYPER registers. The API requires explicitly passing them to avoid a race condition in the rare case that you want to configure GPIOA pins from different execution contexts that can preempt each other; in that scenario the API will force you to use a critical section to access the proxies.

It may seem redundant to be explicit about these registers when all the configuration is done in a single execution context, but by having these explicit proxies you can be sure that once they are destroyed the configuration of the GPIOA pins can’t be changed anymore.

No pin overlap

Modern microcontrollers pack lots of peripherals in a single package– sometimes so many peripherals that not all of them can be used at the same time. This is actually normal because most applications won’t use all of them; instead each application will use different kinds of peripherals and different number of instances of each kind.

For maximum flexibility vendors don’t hardwire peripherals to physical pins (mainly because there’s not enough physical pins in the first place) instead one can configure the function of a pin at runtime – this effectively associates the pin to a particular peripheral. But it’s definitively an error to associate a single pin to more than one peripheral. With move semantics we can reject such misconfigurations at compile time:

fn main() {
    let p = Peripherals::take().unwrap();

    let mut flash = p.FLASH.constrain();
    let mut rcc = p.RCC.constrain();

    let mut gpioa = p.GPIOA.split(&mut rcc.ahb);
    let clocks = rcc.cfgr.freeze(&mut flash.acr);

    // use pins PA9 and PA10 with USART1
    // the `Serial::usart1` constructor requires the pins to be configured with
    // the right Alternate Function (AF); it also consumes the pins
    let tx = gpioa.pa9.into_af7(&mut gpioa.moder, &mut gpioa.afrh);
    let rx = gpioa.pa10.into_af7(&mut gpioa.moder, &mut gpioa.afrh);
    let serial =
        Serial::usart1(p.USART1, (tx, rx), 9_600.bps(), clocks, &mut rcc.apb2);

    // try to use PA9 and PA10 with I2C2
    let scl = gpioa.pa9.into_af4(&mut gpioa.moder, &mut gpioa.afrh);
    //~^ error: use of move value: `gpioa.pa9`
    let sda = gpioa.pa10.into_af4(&mut gpioa.moder, &mut gpioa.afrh);
    //~^ error: use of move value: `gpioa.pa10`
    let i2c = I2c::i2c2(p.I2C2, (scl, sda), 400.khz(), clocks, &mut rcc.apb1);

And this is just the tip of iceberg of the things you can do with the new I/O model.

Layered I/O

Let’s now look at another aspect of the I/O story: code reuse.

The API that svd2rust generates serves as the lowest abstraction layer sitting very close to the hardware and providing an API for directly manipulating registers. Most people will want to program with higher level abstractions that map closer to actions like “read this sensor”, “send data through this interface”, etc.

This section covers my plan for building those higher level abstractions with minimal code duplication.

Thou shalt not block

I/O can be performed in a blocking fashion or in an asynchronous fashion. And there’s more than one way to do asynchronous I/O: there’s the callback model (“run this function when data is ready”), the futures model (“a future represents an I/O action that will be completed some time in the future; poll to see if the I/O has completed or not”) and the generators model (“yield control, instead of blocking, when no more progress can be made”).

We can implement a blocking API on top of the svd2rust API; we can implement a futures based version of the API on top of the svd2rust API; and we can implement a generator based version of the API on top of the svd2rust API. The implementations of those three flavors of the same API will look very similar. The question is: can we implement some intermediate API to avoid writing register manipulation code in those three implementations? The answer is the nb crate.

I pulled a solution out of the Tokio book, or maybe it’s actually from the *nix book. The solution I chose was to implement the intermediate API as a non blocking API that returns a WouldBlock error variant to signal that the operation can not be completed right now. This non fatal error variant has a different meaning depending on the (a)synchronous model is used in:

  • In a blocking API, WouldBlock means try again i.e. busy wait (or maybe do something more elaborated if you have a threading system).
  • In a futures based API, WouldBlock means Async::NotReady
  • In a generator based API, WouldBlock means yield

Async, your way

Let’s look at an example. Below is shown the nb API for reading a single byte from a serial interface. Serial::read will return Ok(byte) if new data is available to be read; it will return Err(nb::Error::WouldBlock) if no new data is available at the moment; and it will return e.g. Err(nb::Error::Other(Error::Overrun)) if some fatal error occurred.

enum Error {
    // ..

impl Serial {
    pub fn read(&mut self) -> nb::Result<u8, Error> { /* .. */ }

The nb crate provides macros to easily transform this intermediate API into the (a)synchronous models I mentioned:

block! is used to implement blocking APIs by busy waiting.

fn blocking_read(serial: &mut Serial) -> Result<u8, Error> {

try_nb! is used to implement futures based APIs.

fn futures_read(serial: Serial) -> impl Future<(Serial, u8), Error> {
    let mut serial = Some(serial);
    futures::poll_fn(move || {
        let byte = try_nb!(serial.as_mut().unwrap().read());
        Ok(Async::Ready((serial.take().unwrap(), byte)))

await! is used to implement generator based APIs.

fn generator_read(
    mut serial: Serial,
) -> impl Generator<Return = Result<(Serial, u8), Error>, Yield = ()> {
    let byte = await!(;
    Ok((serial, byte))

None of these higher level APIs required writing any register manipulation code and the functions could even have been made generic if Serial::read was a trait method instead of an inherent method. Which brings me to the next topic.

HAL traits

The nb crate provides an easy transition from the svd2rust API to the different (a)synchronous models but for code reuse we have to write generic code and this means that we have to establish a set of traits to build that generic code upon.

Enter the embedded-hal crate.

This crate is basically a collection of traits that provides interfaces for the different peripherals available on a embedded device. These traits form a Hardware Abstraction Layer, an abstraction that hides device specific details like registers.

At the center of this crate we have nb based traits that make functions like the Serial::read method we saw before more generic:

pub mod serial {
    pub trait Read<Word> {
        type Error;

        /// Reads a single word from the serial interface
        fn read(&mut self) -> nb::Result<Word, Self::Error>;

Then we have slightly higher level traits that actually pick an (a)synchronous model. Where possible opt-in default implementations on top of the nb traits are provided.

/// Blocking API
pub mod blocking {
    /// Blocking SPI API
    pub mod spi {
        /// Blocking transfer
        pub trait Transfer<Word> {
            type Error;

            /// Sends `words` to the slave. Returns the `words` received from
            /// the slave
            fn transfer<'w>(
                &mut self,
                words: &'w mut [Word],
            ) -> Result<&'w [Word], Self::Error>;

        /// Blocking transfer
        pub mod transfer {
            /// Marker trait to opt into a default implementation of
            /// `blocking::spi::Transfer<W>`
            pub trait Default<W>: ::spi::FullDuplex<W> {}

            impl<W, S> blocking::spi::Transfer<W> for S
                S: Default<W>,
                W: Clone,
                type Error = S::Error;

                fn transfer(
                    &mut self,
                    words: &'w mut [Word],
                ) -> Result<&'w [Word], S::Error> {
                    for word in words.iter_mut() {
                        *word = block!(;


Write once, run everywhere

The end goal of having these traits is writing generic drivers: library crates that let you interface external components but that – thanks to the HAL – whose implementation is oblivious to the hardware details of the platform they are running on.

SPI and I2C are two widely used communication protocols and there are several external components, like digital sensors, out there that can be interfaced using one of these two communication protocols. The embedded-hal crate contains blocking traits for these two communication protocols and, as a proof of concept, I have developed a few no_std generic drivers on top of those traits:

  • l3gd20, gyroscope found on the STM32F3DISCOVERY board
  • lsm303dlhc, accelerometer + compass found on the STM32F3DISCOVERY board
  • mfrc522, RFID tag reader / writer
  • mpu9250, Nine-Axis (Gyro + Accelerometer + Compass) MEMS MotionTracking Device

As an example, let’s look at the mfrc522 driver:


extern crate embedded_hal as hal;

/// MFRC522 driver
struct Mfrc522<SPI, NSS> where
    SPI: hal::blocking::spi::Transfer<u8> + hal::blocking::spi::Write<u8>,
    NSS: hal::digital::OutputPin,
    spi: SPI,
    nss: NSS,

The driver uses a SPI bus and a NSS (slave select) pin to interface with a MFRC522. The driver is generic over both the SPI bus and the NSS pin; this means any abstraction that implements the required traits can be used here. For instance, the linux-embedded-hal crate which implements the embedded-hal traits for the spidev and sysfs_gpio crates can be used with this driver to build a program that targets a platform running Linux, like the Raspeberry Pi.

The blue RFID tag turns the green LED (see bottom right corner) on while the RFID card turns it off.

Since the crate is a no_std crate it can also be used to build a no_std program that targets an ARM Cortex-M microcontroller. (The source for this second program will be in the blue-pill repository once I finish cleaning it up.)

So, by using the embedded-hal traits driver authors can effortlessly support a bunch of diverse platforms (AVR, ARM Cortex-M, MSP430, RISC-V microcontrollers; ARM Cortex-A single board computers; etc.) in a single crate. Whereas application developers, by implementing the embedded-hal traits for their platform, can unlock a bunch of drivers at zero extra effort.

Crate hierarchy for Cortex-M

Here’s the whole I/O picture for the Cortex-M ecosystem.

At the lowest level we have the device crates generated by svd2rust. These expose type safe APIs for directly manipulating registers. Depending on the source SVD file a device crate can support a single device or several device families. For example, the stm32f30x crate supports device families STM32F301xx, STM32F302xx and STM32F303xx.

At the next level you have HAL implementation crates like the stm32f30x-hal that implement the embedded-hal traits for a single device crate. These crates expose higher level APIs for Serial interfaces, SPI interfaces, clock configuration, etc. and it’s what most people will be using. These crates let you use generic drivers to interface external components.

There’s one more level: board support crates.

HAL impl crates are highly generic: they let you configure peripherals to work with any valid pin configuration. This is reflected in the types exposed by the crate:

// crate: stm32f30x-hal

// `Serial` is generic over
// - the USART peripheral, which can be USART1, USART2, etc.
// - the TX and RX pins, which can be PA9 and PA10 or PB7 and PB8 for USART1, etc.
struct Serial<USART, TX, RX> where
    TX: TxPin<USART>,
    RX: RxPin<USART>,
{ .. }

impl<TX, RX> Serial<USART1, TX, RX> where .. {
    pub fn usart1(usart: USART1, (tx, rx): (TX, RX), ..) -> Self { .. }

But PCBs already have their microcontroller’s pins routed to external components; this means that some peripherals / pins have to be configured in a certain way. Thus board support crates should narrow down the possible configurations of a peripheral to a single configuration to avoid misconfigurations. Board support crates can achieve that by exposing type aliases that turn the generic types from HAL impl crates into concrete types:

// crate: f3 (board support crate for the STM32F3DISCOVERY)

// driver crate that exposes a generic `Lsm303dlhc<I2C> where I2C: ..` type
extern crate lsm303dlhc;

// Pins PA9 and PA10 have been routed to e.g. an UART <-> USB adapter so they
// can only be used for serial communication
// `Serial1` represents that serial interface
pub type Serial1 = stm32f30x_hal::Serial<USART1, PA9<AF7>, PA10<AF7>>;

// LSM303DLHC is connected to the microcontroller via the I2C1 bus lines: PB6
// and PB7
pub type Lsm303dlhc = lsm303dlhc::Lsm303dlhc<I2c<I2C1, (PB6<AF4>, PB7<AF4>)>>;

This means that we can specify board connections at the type level and have them enforced by the compiler: if, for example, you try to construct a f3::Lsm303dlhc value using pins other than PB6 and PB7 you’ll get a compiler error.


The new I/O model brings move semantics to the table which lets us exploit the type system (mainly using the type state pattern) to check configurations at compile time and have to compiler reject wrong configurations.

The new model also serves as a solid foundation on top of which we can build generic drivers using the embedded-hal traits.

The best part is that these two advantages are orthogonal. Perhaps you are not too crazy about the type state stuff and think it’s too much work for little gain. That’s totally OK! You can still benefit from the generic driver crates if you implement the embedde-hal traits; type state is not a requirement for using generic driver crates.

What’s next

Async HAL

All my proof of concept driver crates expose a blocking API. We want to explore writing asynchronous driver crates using futures / generators. We are kind of blocked on that front though because to write truly generic async driver code we would need HAL traits whose methods return futures or generators and impl Trait doesn’t work in that position yet:

// I2C async write
trait Write {
    type Error;

    fn write(
        addr: u8,
        bytes: [u8; 16], // NOTE should be generic over the size
    ) -> impl Generator<Return = Result<(Self, [u8; 16]), Self::Error>, Yield = ()>;
    //~^ error: `impl Trait` not allowed outside of function and inherent method return types

Using boxed trait objects is not really an option as some applications will prefer to leave out the memory allocator. It might be possible to walk down the futures route right now if we are OK with using really long (lasagna) types that implement the Future trait as the return types …

Reduce implementation work

With the crate hierarchy I described before svd2rust does 90% of the work by generating the device crates for us. Writing those by hand would be extremely tedious and error prone; it would also take lots of human hours to completely write a single device crate.

The next level of the hierarchy, the HAL impl crates, need to be written by a human because semantics need to be understood (“what does this register do?”) and tools can’t do those for us. However, the way svd2rust currently works will let us to write a bunch of duplicated code. Let me elaborate:

svd2rust produces a single device crate per input SVD file. The SVD file can be generic like the STM32F30X.svd which covers three device families: STM32F301xx, STM32F302xx and STM32F303xx; or less generic like the STM32F301X.svd, STM32F302X and STM32F303X.svd where each one targets one of the device families mentioned before.

You may already see where this is going. If we generated three device crates and implemented three HAL impl crates we would have ended with three very similar looking crates. By, instead, implementing the HAL for the more generic device crate we reduce the amount of required work by 66%.

Vendors may not always provide these more generic SVD files but there are many similarities between devices from the same vendor, even if they are from different product lines. If we can make svd2rust find those similarities to produce shared crates (see below) for us we could make it do 99% of the implementation work.

Ideally svd2rust -i *.svd should generate crates like these:

// crate: stm32_common
pub struct GPIOA { .. }
// ..
pub struct USART1 { .. }
pub struct USART2 { .. }
pub struct USART3 { .. }
// ..
// crate: stm32f10x
extern crate stm32_common;

// NOTE no USART3 here
pub use stm32_common::{GPIOA, .., USART1, USART2, ..};
// crate: stm32f20x
extern crate stm32_common;

pub use stm32_common::{GPIOA, .., USART1, USART2, USART3, ..};

Then the HAL implementation only needs to be done for the stm32_common:

// crate: stm32_common_hal

extern crate stm32_common;

use stm32_common::USART1;

pub struct Serial<USART, ..> { .. }

// this implementation supports devices from the STM32F10x, STM32F20x, etc. families
impl hal::serial::Write for Serial<USART1, ..> { .. }

Making more batteries

To encourage the use of the embedded-hal traits and to grow the no-std ecosystem I’m starting the weekly driver initiative 🎉.

The goal is to release one generic, no_std, embedded-hal based driver crate every one or maybe two weeks. I can probably implement ~20 of these crates in a year on my own (I don’t think I have more than 30 external components with me in any case) so I hope others will join in so we can get way more crates published. A short blog post will accompany each driver release describing its functionality.

That’s it for this post. Until next time.

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Jorge Aparicio